Letters of Protest

Protest by Shippers of Goods against the Master and Owners of a Vessel, in consequence of the Master’s refusal, after notice, to sign a Bill of Lading in the customary form.

From Treatise of the law relative to Merchant Ships and Seamen.
By Lord Tenderden, 10th ed, 1856

Protest by the Master of a Vessel for Demurrage, payable under the Stipulations of a Charter-party

From Treatise of the law relative to Merchant Ships and Seamen.
By Lord Tenderden, 10th ed, 1856

Protest by the Master of a Vessel against the Consignees of Goods for not taking and discharging them from the Vessel in a reasonable time

From Treatise of the law relative to Merchant Ships and Seamen.
By Lord Tenderden, 10th ed, 1856

this page was last time updated on: 10-Dec-2012

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Liquid Cargo Shortage Claims

There is a widespread practice of using letters of protest to record discrepancies between ship and shore figures, suspected presence of water content etc.…

However, the use of letters of protest can be counterproductive for owners in circumstances where the discrepancy falls outside the acceptable margin…

Loss prevention briefing for North of England P&I Memebers. August 2008

MaritimeBlog. Master’s Page

Letters of Protest. User’s Manual

[The] protest was merely … a paper containing the account of the loss given by the captain … it could not be read on behalf of the defendant to prove any fact in the case.
Per Grose J in Senat v Porter [1797] EngR 358; (1797) 7 TR 158 at p.159
Introductory Note

Any master knows what letter of protest is or, at the very least, supposed to know when such letter shall be issued. Generally, there is no any restriction to issue a letter of protest, rather the contrary, master usually encouraged and sometimes instructed to serve letter of protest whenever he thinks necessary.

It can be noted in passing, that letters of protest is not a modern invention and was known long since. Already in the eighteenth century master’s protest was treated only as a paper containing the account of the loss given by the captain. Sixty years later the following definition of a marine protest and protests in general, one could meet in the text books:

A Marine Protest is a declaration or narrative, by the master, of the particulars of the voyage, of the storms or bad weather which the vessel may have encountered, the accidents which may have occurred, and the conduct which, in cases of emergency he had thought to pursue…

With whatever formalities drawn up, it cannot be received in our Courts as evidence for the master or his owners; but it may be evidence against him and them, and he should take care to supply from the log-book, his own recollection, and that of the mate, or trustworthy mariners, true and faithful instructions for its preparation. Protests are often of great utility in matters connected with the adjustment of losses in marine insurance and in the calculation of averages; they are received as evidence in foreign Courts, and with us credit is often given to their contents by merchants and underwriters, when free from all circumstances of suspicion (see as to log-books Rundle v Beaumont (1828) 4 Bing. 537).

Protests are also made by the master against the charterers of the ship or the consignees of the goods, for loading or unloading the vessel pursuant to contract, or within reasonable or stipulated delays; and by the merchant against the master, for misconduct, drunkenness, etc., for not proceeding to sea with due despatch, for not signing bills of lading in the customary form, and other irregularities.

This definition, at least in sense if not in form, remains valid today. Therefore the first thing to remember is that a letter of protest, strictly speaking, is not a legal document but a paper containing an account of the events or statement of facts, describing current situation or consequences of some wrongful act or acts, which had happened usually contrary to master’s or crew efforts.

For example, when during cargo operation something beyond the master’s control has gone wrong and the master is unable to make it right, like interruption from shore side of loading or discharging operation, neglect cargo handling, violation of safe working practice, etc. Obviously, the said act or occurrence should be of such importance that master feels himself obliged to bring it to attention of all parties concerned, either for some immediate action or for future reference, but it still lacks of any legal effect being a document produced by one side to defence its own position.

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